• 7.2 Margaret Haley, “Why Teachers Should Organize” 1904  *An excerpted speech given by teacher union leader Margaret Haley to the general assembly of the National Education Association in 1904. It was also published in the Journal of Education.
  • 8.6 Charles Houston, Scottsboro Case, Revisited, 1939*Charles Houston delivered this speech to an International Labor Defense conference on July 8th, 1939. His “Special Paper on…Educational Equality” speech draws a connection between labor, civil rights, and education. Houston specifically links the Scottsboro Case to labor control.